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Madness (as Ustari. Madness) — a potentially incurable severe mental disorder.

By the end of the XIX century was considered crazy or insane behavior or thinking goes beyond the accepted social norm, such as painful cramps, hallucinations while preserving reason, strange or self-destructive acts and suicide attempts. In addition, epilepsy, concussion, and the consequences of traumatic brain injury is also considered to be a manifestation of madness.

Since historically the term has been applied to a number of different mental illnesses in modern medicine and psychiatry, he rarely used, although still popular in colloquial speech.

Contents [remove]
1 History of determination
2 Symptoms
2.1 Madness painting
2.2 Madness in the literature
3 Forms
3.1 Useful madness
3.2 Reasonable and reckless
3.3 Melancholy
3.4 mania and hysteria
3.5 Other forms of
4 Reasons madness
4.1 supernatural causes
4.1.1 Witchcraft and the gift of the gods
4.1.2 Earliest demon
4.2 Physical causes
4.2.1 Mental and moral
4.2.2 Physical
5 Diagnostics
6 Treatment
6.1 Treatment of magic
6.2 Surgical treatment
6.3 Exile and education
6.4 No treatment
6.5 Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy
7 References and quotations
8 See. Also
9 Links
10 Notes
The history of the definition [edit | edit the wiki text]
«Madness» is a more modern version of the concept of «madness» and literally means gone mad, lost his mind. The noun «madness» is formed by a direct translation from Greek aphrosyne: a — no, phronis — mind, syne (suffix) — s. In many Slavic languages, the word «madness» has a similar sound [1].

Symptoms [edit | edit the wiki text]
Since the forms of insanity are very diverse, highlight certain features is not possible. The general criterion may serve to deviate from the accepted social norms, starting with the pathological hyperactivity and ending catatonic stupor and depression.
Allegory of the Triumph of Venus, Bronzino
The first manifests itself loss of emotional control, inability to restrain the manifestations of fear, anger, rage and psychology as defined in the heat of passion. In this state, the behavior can not be self-control, or meaningless actions designed to meet the instinctual needs and the consequences of action not play any role. The outer and the inner world of mixed perception of reality has been lost. Examples can be found in Greek Mythology: Heracles kills its children Ajax cuts Odyssey flock of sheep and swooped on his own sword, and Medea kills sons. At the other extreme of madness — depression and melancholy, in violation of communication, indifference and lack of interest in life.

Madness in the painting [edit | edit the wiki text]
Literature and art help to create an impression that was regarded as crazy in the past. The sources are the paintings, icons, frescoes and other works of art. But as the painting has an emotional basis, these sources can not be considered impartial. Madness in the painting appears distorted facial expressions, gestures, meaningless or contradictory, absurd actions, as well as wrong, distorted posture. Not least is the person with inharmonious, asymmetrical or distorted facial features, faces disproportionately wide open, squinting eyes. Often used in the wrong situation facial expressions, such as laughing at tragic or frightening situation. Gestures madman often contradictory and unclear, the body position is wrong or distorted cramp.

Madness in the literature [edit | edit the wiki text]
Description of insanity is found not only in painting, but also many historical and contemporary works. Most often play the role of a crazy soothsayers, magicians, sorcerers, or show and ridicule the established social order in the works with a social theme. Examples of Russian literature with the theme of madness can serve as «The Idiot» by Fyodor Dostoyevsky, «Diary of a Madman» by Nikolai Gogol, «Woe from Wit» Alexander Sergeyevich Griboyedov and others.

Forms [edit | edit the wiki text]

Melancholy, Albrecht Durer

Professor Jean-Martin Charcot demonstrating student woman in a fit of hysterical.
Over the long history of mankind it revealed many different forms of madness and proposed several classification systems. Historically madness attributed to a variety of symptoms such as dementia, amential syndrome, melancholia, mania, rage, lycanthropy, ecstasy, lethargy, delirium, coma, somnambulism, ignorance, epilepsy, stroke, paralysis, hypochondria and others.

Useful madness [edit | edit the wiki text]
The Greek μανία, manía means passion, desire and akin μαντις, mantis, which means seer, a prophet. In Antiquity useful forms of madness were considered poetic inspiration, the gift of divination and ecstasy in particular madness of Dionysus. Plato distinguished four forms of useful Madness: magical, mystical, poetic and erotic madness. In the Middle Ages, too, there was the so-called Permitted madness. He was treated ecstasy, enthusiasm and vision.

Reasonable and reckless [edit | edit the wiki text]
in 1798, Immanuel Kant suggested that the description of madness as the dichotomy of reason and folly. [2] According to the severity of Kant divided into three groups madness: madness, madness and insanity. His definition of insanity as an offset to a reasonable reckless was in the XVIII and XIX centuries, the classic definition of insanity. Kant defines insanity as the systematic violation of the reasonable, which is manifested in the «positive» madness: patients develop their own logical rules that do not meet the normal logic. In all forms of madness personal perception replaces common sense.

Melancholia [edit | edit the wiki text]
This form of madness has been described in the Antiquity and in the days of humanism gained special popularity, though melancholic figure with thin bones and a dead person and was not considered beautiful. The reason was a hint in the works of Aristotle and Cicero on the genius inherent in the disease, which led to the spread of the cult of melancholy. It was believed that the gifted artists, writers and poets are on the verge of genius and madness. This form of madness as a means of self-expression has lost popularity until the early XIX century.

Mania and hysteria [edit | edit the wiki text]
It is considered to be the complete opposite of melancholy mania. In contrast to the melancholy mania manifested ferocity, excitement and fervor. Typical symptoms of mania are also considered increased appetite, impaired attention and re-evaluation of the self.

Hysteria also long been considered women’s disease, and looking at the cause of disorders of the female reproductive system. In the second half of the XIX century, many women were mutilated by physicians, to no avail lechivshimi hysteria surgery.

Other forms [edit | edit the wiki text]
Until recently, the madness is not only ranked as mental disorders, but such diseases and defects, epilepsy, rabies, and other lycanthropy. Confusion after taking these drugs and toxic substances such as alcohol, hallucinogens, and was considered a manifestation of madness. Other forms of madness were considered, for example, a congenital condition and loss of reason as a result of the coma, lethargy, disease states, or old age. Mourning the loss of a loved one, as well as the pain of unrequited love also relates to insanity. In the literature, a description of such common manifestations of grief, insomnia, crying and wringing hands. All these manifestations were considered a sign of madness.

Until the middle of XX century the concept of health for the majority of the members of society is determined by the concept of the norm. All that for whatever reason, rejected by society, considered a painful rejection. As a consequence, members of the public, does not fit the description of a «reasonable» person, ostracized and persecuted. The ideal of a mentally healthy person has changed with the development of society, but sometimes propagated by force.

The reasons of insanity [edit | edit the wiki text]

Mad Kate, Johann Füssli
The first who gave a scientific description of madness, was Plato. In the dialogue «Phaedrus», he distinguishes between two kinds of madness: the disease and divine gift. In the following description of the causes of insanity are also divided into natural and supernatural for a better comparison.

Supernatural causes [edit | edit the wiki text]
Witchcraft and the gift of the gods [edit | edit the wiki text]
The Babylonians (XIX century BC. E. — VI century BC. E.) And the Sumerians (XXVII-XXIV century BC. E.) Considered madness consequence of witchcraft, taboo breaking, and madness was the conviction and sentence at the same time.

In ancient Greece, the madness was considered demonic possession, but could be sent down by the gods. While somatic disorder was considered a disease of the soul, and as described by Plato in the «Timaeus» bore evil divine madness give real knowledge, and therefore had a positive impact. In contrast to what was said in ancient Greek myths of divine madness often led to self-destruction and the killing of innocents — are usually close relatives [source not specified 173 days].

In the Old Testament madness is also credited with the role of punishment. An example is the image of the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar punished for the madness of pride. And at the beginning of this punishment of Nebuchadnezzar I had a dream that it was interpreted by Daniel the prophet, and only then sentence was fulfilled, and Nebuchadnezzar turned into seven years in the wild animal, as was predicted. [3] This description was the basis of views on madness in the Middle Ages was considered a punishment sent down by God for their sins. In addition, about the madness is mentioned in the Bible book of Psalms. Prophet David says about another reason of insanity — a lack of faith in God, [4], and in Sirach pride and disbelief in God are closely linked. [5]

Earliest demon [edit | edit the wiki text]
Over time, the madness is increasingly regarded as an obsession with demons and demons. An example of King Saul, possessed demon, tormenting his sins to the Amalekites, served as confirmation of this theory, especially during the Inquisition. In the Gospel you can find examples of the expulsion of demons, such as the expulsion of the resident demon Jesus Jerash. The main signs of demonic possession were uncontrolled actions and especially glossolalia. And only in the XVII century Dutch Calvinists began to interpret this example is not a punishment by God for their sins, but as a «normal» madness.

And finally, in the late Middle Ages and the new time has become madness of the fight between the demon and the powers of God for the soul of the possessed.

Physical causes [edit | edit the wiki text]
Mental and moral [law | Wiki text]
In Homer’s epic it can be seen that the ancient Greeks under the «normal» madness realized loss of self-control and brain fog because of the pain, rage, desire for revenge or hatred. In ancient Greek tragedy madness described as the loss of the «I» that has disastrous consequences for the insane and his entourage. While no attempt to describe the physical causes of insanity are not undertaken.

Only at the end of the Middle Ages, when the witch hunt has acquired threatening proportions, physician Johann Weyer opposed the Inquisition and religious misconceptions debunked. Unfortunately, he could not single-handedly overcome religious superstition. There are also works of Paracelsus (1493-1541) and Felix Plater (1536-1614), supporting the view Weyer. So, Plater believed that not any madness — it’s an obsession with demons, there are simple, «ordinary» form of madness.

Since the XVI century, the definition of insanity slowly beginning to change, and in the XVII century, ceased to be used in the context of demonic possession. By this time, the madness has got the meaning of punishment for promiscuity and recklessness and was accused insane.
Nebuchadnezzar William Blake
The Enlightenment brought a new definition of madness and folly explained how upset initially healthy mind. Thus madness was opposed to reason and could be justified and explained. The proof of the impossibility without reason of insanity brought Arthur Schopenhauer, basing his theory that animals do not go crazy, because they do not have a reason.

Physical [edit | edit the wiki text]
Greek medicine, based on the texts of Hippocrates, interpreted as an excess of madness «black bile», whose pair settled in the brain, corroding it and lead to insanity. «The yellow bile», on the contrary, led to an increase in activity — choleric insanity, epilepsy and mania. This theory has found a second life in the time of humanism and renaissance.

Melancholy rank as heart disease, which, unlike the brain, was considered the guardian of the nature and feelings, although this view is contested in medical circles. For example, Girolamo Merkuriale described melancholy as damage to the card active imagination in the front part of the brain.

On the other hand, scientists were unanimous that the inflammation of the meninges of the brain leads to the loss of reason, even though the cause of the inflammation is still considered an excess of «black bile». [6]

It is also a known cause of insanity are head injuries. For example, Wilhelm von Konches (1080-1154) described the impact of head injuries on the occurrence of mental disorders, and Mondino de Lucchi (1275-1326) created the theory of the ventricles of the brain. [7]

Positivist theory states that the soul is only a puppet of the brain, all the manifestations of insanity are without a physical explanation and treatable. This view was definitively established in the second half of the XIX century, and the term «insane» (which implies that a person has a «soul» that can «hurt») completely replaced the definition of a «madman.» At the beginning of XX century the concept changed again, and now all the signs, generalized earlier word madness, designated as a mental disorder.

In modern psychiatry is considered [source not specified 173 days] that mental disorders are due to violations of neurotransmitter balance, that is, neurons that make up the brain, not connected to each other, between them there is a distance — synaptic cleft, it are the so-called neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and so on. d.) that transmit impulses between neurons. Due to the violation of this balance occurring mental disorders. It is treated with neuroleptics, that this balance is reduced.

Diagnosis [edit | edit the wiki text]

Phrenological map
Start relying on observation diagnosis of insanity in 1793 put the physician and philanthropist Philippe Pinel (1745-1826), becoming the manager of a doctor in Paris institution for the insane Bicetre (Bicêtre). He introduced the humanitarian treatment, procured from the Revolutionary Convention permit to remove the chain with the mentally ill, and classify them according to the severity and form of the disease. All groups of patients were divided into areas where the development and course of certain types of disease could be directly compared and studied. All the experience Pinel invested in the monograph, which was released in 1798. It was this work became the basis for the scientific classification of insanity.

Another well-known for his contributions to the development of medical psychiatry Joseph Gall believed madness organic disease and sought physical causes of its development. In 1785, in his laboratory in Vienna, he began studying the neurological structure of the brain. As a result, he was able to establish a link between damage to certain parts of the brain and forms of insanity, and as a result become the founder of phrenology.

Today, mental disorders are not combined in such a general term such as «madness» or «insanity» and divide using diagnostic systems such as DSM-IV American Psychiatric Association (TMA) and MKB World Health Organization (WHO).

Treatment [edit | edit the wiki text]
Treatment of magic [edit | edit the wiki text]
In the Middle Ages often tried to cure madness and magic spells, attempting to exorcise the evil demon from the patient. It was believed that there is a possibility to replace one another demon, and thus unsuccessful «treatment» was not put anyone to blame. By means of treatment in Catholicism served prayers, Masses and pilgrimages to holy places in evangelism further reading of the Bible was used on mentally ill.

Surgery [edit | edit the wiki text]

Hieronymus Bosch, stone extraction stupidity
Excavations confirmed that as early as the Stone Age used to treat craniotomy. It was believed that the hole in the skull and relieve the demon gives him the road to freedom. Although this method of treatment is uncertain madness, one can assume that even then the madness associated with brain damage. Similar methods are used at a later time.

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